a style developed in the 1950s by musicians such as Horace Silver, Clifford Brown, Art Blakey, Freddie Hubbard
, and others. Seen as an extension of bebop
, hard bop infused the earlier style with elements of R&B, blues, and gospel. Hard bop was just as virtuosic as bebop, but sought to make jazz more appealing to dance audiences, the way swing
had been. A reaction to “cool jazz,” which was partly influenced by European classical music, hard bop is characterized by its focus solely on African American musical styles.